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Cardiovascular risk factors :











     Age: > 50 years in men
          > 60 in women

     Gender: male

     Arterial hypertension * (HTA): defined as arterial pressure (AP) > 140/90`

     Diabetes: a chronic disease that occurs when the pancreas does not produce enough insulin or when the body is not   not able       to effectively use the insulin it produces. This results in an increased concentration of glucose in the blood                                           (hyperglycaemia).


     Dyslipidemia: An abnormality in cholesterol and/or triglycerides (fatty acids) which promotes the formation of plaques of         atheroma.

     Cardiovascular heredity: Myocardial infarction or sudden death before the age of 55 in the father or a relative of the first                   male degree; or myocardial infarction or sudden death before the age of 65 in the mother or a relative of the first       female             degree.

     Obesity: BMI > 30 kg/m2 (overweight: BMI > 25kg/m2).

     Physical inactivity.

     The stress


* hypertension: 

Defined as Blood Pressure (BP) > 140/90. Often silent. It is very bad for the heart (coronary insufficiency and heart failure), the brain (stroke) and the kidneys (kidney failure).    


Coronary arteries covered with plaque

Healthy coronary arteries

Heart valve disease:

It is the consequence of the formation of atheromatous plaques in the arterial wall. These lesions are made up of lipids and inflammatory cells.  


Many “stable” coronary plaques do not cause angina, or even ischemia or lack of oxygen (these are narrowings less than 50% reduction in diameter) but from a narrowing of 75% the heart is at risk of ischemia.

Atheromatous plaque may undergo rupture, cracking, erosion which  will lead to the formation of a clot which may or may not block the artery. The consequence will be a coronary syndrome  acute  whose most serious consequence is  infarction (death of the heart muscle).

Cardiological examinations such as exercise or pharmacological stress tests can diagnose the disease, but only coronary angiography will directly visualize the presence and degree of severity of the plaques.

The heart valves are 4 in number and they are flaps that open or close with each heartbeat.

They may present hereditary or acquired abnormalities. These abnormalities will result in either shrinkage or leakage.


Shrinkage and leaks can be light, moderate or heavy. Depending on the severity of one or the other or sometimes both, monitoring or treatment will be proposed.

The diagnosis is made by cardiac ultrasound and the impact will be assessed by other examinations such as stress tests.

Heart failure: 

Occurs when an abnormality in the structure or function of the heart prevents the heart from delivering oxygen in a manner adapted to the needs of the tissues.


Heart failure is a clinical syndrome that is to say, symptoms and signs are associated. Symptoms are dyspnea, ankle edema, fatigue, etc.

The two main causes of heart failure are atheromatous coronary disease and high blood pressure.

Heart rhythm disorders: 

Are inappropriate changes in heart rate. These disorders can be a slow heartbeat (bradycardia) or too fast (tachycardia). Also an irregular rhythm like atrial fibrillation.

Their diagnosis is made thanks to the symptoms, 24-hour ECG, stress test,  etc.

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